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Under-five mortality at the children’s emergency room of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Southeastern Nigeria
Chikaodili A Ibeneme, Ezinwa O Ezuruike, Francis C Korie, Ndubuisi K Chukwudi
January-June 2019, 24(1):47-52
Background: Under-five children’s death is one of the vital indices of a society’s development and a telling evidence of their priorities and values. An audit of the common causes of mortality among under-fives is essential in ensuring optimum child survival. Aim: To determine the magnitude, causes, and determinants of under-five deaths at the Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Southeastern Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective review of all postneonatal under-five deaths at the Children’s Emergency Room from January 2012 to December 2016, was carried out and the information was analyzed. Results: Of a total of 6141 under-fives admitted during the 5-year period, 197 died giving a mortality rate of 32 per 1000 LB. Boys accounted for 106 (53.8%) with no gender difference in the mortality rates (P = 0.262). The leading primary causes of death were sepsis, severe malaria, diarrheal disease, meningitis, pneumonia, and severe acute malnutrition, accounting for 95%. Deaths due to malaria occurred more among the preschool age group than that among infants and toddlers (P = 0.013), whereas those due to pneumonia were more prevalent among infants (P = 0.012). Diarrheal disease caused more deaths during the dry weather season (P = 0.009). Approximately 40% of the deaths occurred within 24h of arrival to the Emergency Unit. The most common complications leading to death were dehydration, severe anemia, shock, heart failure, and hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The leading causes of under-fives deaths in our center are preventable infectious diseases. Intensification of goal-targeted, disease-specific preventive measures is recommended.
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Frequency of hemophilia and hemostatic evaluation in persons with bleeding symptoms in Southeast, Nigeria
Samuel Okparaoka, Theresa U Nwagha, Bond Anyaehie
January-June 2019, 24(1):18-22
Background: A significant number of people living with hemophilia and other bleeding disorders are reported to be either underdiagnosed or untreated in most developing countries. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of hemophilia and some hemostatic parameters in persons with bleeding symptoms in Southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based pilot study of 50 persons consecutively recruited with bleeding symptoms from four tertiary hospitals in Southeast Nigeria. Full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 semiautomated analyzer, (Orphee, Geneva, Switzerland). Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) mixing studies and one-stage factor assays were carried out using tube tilt technique. Bleeding score was assessed using the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding assessment tool. Data were analyzed using the Graphpad Prisim, version 6.0, San Diego. Results: Only 2% of the subjects had hemophilia A, whereas 68% of the subjects had thrombocytopenic bleeding. Most (32.4%) had bleeding score of four. Analysis of variance of these variables showed a significant relationship with P < 0.0001. Post hoc analysis showed significant P values for platelet count versus bleeding score (P = 0.000, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 95.74–126.4) and APTT versus bleeding score (P = 0.000, 95% CI: 44.34–74.98). Conclusion: Bleeding assessment tools are important in evaluating persons with bleeding symptoms and it may be necessary to screen for hemophilia in these cases. Larger multicenter epidemiological studies are needed to determine the prevalence of hemophilia and other bleeding disorders in our environment.
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