Relationship of placental diameter and thickness versus fetal growth biometrics: A cross-sectional sonographic evaluation of antenatal women in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria
Ozoemena Joseph Ogbochukwu1, Ngozi Regina Dim2, Amaka Obiageli Nnamani2, Ngozi Rosemary Njeze2, Emmanuel Nebeuwa Obikili3, Cyril Chukwudi Dim4
1 Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Centre, Nguru, Yobe State, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla Campus, Enugu, Nigeria
3 Department of Anatomy/Radiation Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla Campus, Enugu, Nigeria
4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology/Institute of Maternal and Child Health, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla Campus, Enugu, Nigeria
Ngozi Regina Dim
Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla, P.M.B. 01129, Enugu.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The placenta is a feto-maternal organ that plays a vital role in normal fetal growth and perinatal outcome. Sonographic studies have shown that placental diameter (PD) and thickness (PT) increase linearly with gestational age, and may have relationships with fetal parameters and estimated weight. Aim: To determine the relationship between PT and PD with fetal biometric parameters and estimated weight, as well as establish a model for estimating birth weight from these placental parameters. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 400 antenatal women with normal, third-trimester, singleton pregnancies at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Ultrasound was used to evaluate their PD and PT. Fetal weight was estimated (EFW) using fetal biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length. Data were analyzed with SPSS, version 20. Results: The mean PD of participants before 37 weeks of gestation (183.8 ± 8.7 mm) was significantly shorter than that of participants at term (205.7 ± 2.5 mm), P < 0.001. For PT, the mean values for participants before term and at term were 36.3 ± 2.4 mm versus 43.2 ± 1.0 mm, respectively, P < 0.001. There were varying positive correlations between each placental parameter and the three fetal biometric parameters. Both PD and PT had a high positive correlation with EFW (P < 0.001). Regression analysis predicted fetal weight using PD and PT. Conclusion: PD and PT showed a high positive correlation with fetal weight and can be used as a sonographic parameter in estimating fetal weight.